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Ros Castle - references

From this linke


Quotes from the survey are as follows

Areas of holloways are located at various points in the Park. Some of these had been identified by the Till-Tweed Project, but new features were discovered below and to the west of Ros Castle. The holloways are often very deep (1.5m) and must have been used over long periods, or have seen considerable short-term movement of people and stock. It is very likely that a number of these holloways, particularly those around Ros Castle, were routeways that began to be formed in the Iron Age. The Chillingham estate was founded around the 13th century and has since had boundaries and internal walls built, reworked and moved. Post-Medieval archaeology includes the deer hemmel, of which part of the courtyard wall seems to form part of an earlier boundary wall, and 20 large sandstone pads of which no direct literature has been found to explain their purpose. Nine sandstone culverts/bridges were surveyed. Two rifle butts dating from the Jacobean period and the establishment of the Chillingham militia rifles, of which both were most likely reused during the World Wars, were found together in the southern half of the Park. A First World War saw mill, established by the Canadian Forestry Corps, survives as a concrete plinth with an excavated part of the hillside to the north.

And the geology of the area

The solid geology comprises Tournaisian and Visean carboniferous limestone underlying a layer of sandstone. The archaeology of the Park was situated on light brown sandy soil which overlay the sandstone and was predominant throughout the investigation area. The valley floor has been conditioned by glacial activity with glacial erratics apparent, with possible palaeochannels coursing through the lowlands of the Park. The present water source is the Chillingham Burn which runs north-east to south-west for approximately 1800m. Glacial activity has left the Park bordered on three sides by hills. The Fell Sandstone escarpment which is orientated northeast-southwest runs along the eastern boundary and encompasses the north of the Park. Occasional rock outcrops occur along the Sandstone escarpment. Para-glacial activity continues to shape the landscape, with active slumping present below the summit of Ros Castle.


Prehistoric times

The earliest evidence for human activity in the surrounding area was found on Hepburn Moor, approximately 1 km to the south- east of the park, where a collection of Mesolithic stone tools were found (SMR 3645)(Miket and Burgess 1984; 40 and 51). Prehistoric rock art in the form of cup-marked stones were discovered on seven rock outcrops on the lower slopes of Ros Castle, 50m to the east of the present boundary (SMR 3442) with an eighth single cup-marked stone further to the south (SMR 3627). To the east of the Park, approximately 300m from the eastern boundary, three co-joining, well formed burial cairns with protruding kerbstones were discovered with cremation burials, one of which was interred within a cinerary urn (Archaeological Data Service 2007).


And here is an interesting aside for Ros Castle in the 19th century

In the 19th century the castle gardens were adorned with lawns, terracing, avenues of trees, an Italian Garden, an American garden and an Alpine garden. Ros Castle was reused in this period as a watchtower or beacon, which is now marked out by a stone wall just outside the park boundary.